Mountain regions offer a serious threat to the people residing in those areas with extreme precipitation and temperature. These extremities trigger the flooding, avalanches, wildfire, and drought; imposing danger on the people. Apart from the residents, the other sectors linked with the areas are at a huge risk. Over 50% of the global population depends upon the essential water from the mountain ranges. Therefore, the downstream population is also dependent upon the climatic conditions of the mountains.
Mountain regions cover 25% of the land area of the Earth and these areas face the risk of the flooded glacial lake, landslides, spiked erosion, and melting glaciers, which are considered as the most dangerous natural disasters. The scientists have executed a study and released in Mountain Adaptation Outlook Series which reveals the environmental risks imposed on the susceptible communities residing in the mountains. As a result of these factors, some of the most fruitful sectors like tourism, biodiversity, and agriculture get affected severely.
In a portion of the US Western ranges, infestations of the mountain pine beetle have destroyed tens of millions of trees, which were healthy before the attack. This natural situation worsened the already elevating temperature of the environment, which allows the bark beetle explosion even at the higher altitudes. The synthesis report of the UN is focused on the areas beyond North America, western Balkan and Carpathian mountains of Eastern Europe, South America’s tropical Andes, the South Caucasus, Afghanistan-Pakistan border, Hindu Kush Himalaya range, East African rift, and Central Asia.
The acting director of the UN Environment Program, Joyce Msuya stated that the mountain ranges are an extremely vulnerable and complex portion of the ecosystem. He also stated that this is a marginalized community that serves as the political border between the countries, making it more important for the global population.